Seeing a specialist

If you’ve been referred to a specialist they will often perform further tests to help them determine what is causing your symptoms.

The type of tests you can expect will vary depending on what the suspected cause is, and we’ve detailed some common tests below.


In order to see the tissue inside your throat more clearly, the doctor may check for abnormalities using a nasendoscopy. A narrow, flexible telescope is gently inserted through your nose and down into the throat for a close look at the throat tissue. This may sound unusual, and may be slightly uncomfortable, but will only take a few minutes. This is commonly done as an outpatient appointment.

A local anaesthetic lozenge or spray may be applied to the back of the throat to make it more comfortable – if so, avoid eating or drinking until the effects wear off (usually after about an hour), as food swallowed with a numb throat could possibly make you choke.


This painless test uses sound waves to detect abnormal shapes and growths inside your neck. A little gel is applied to the surface of your neck before the ultrasound device is passed over your skin.  The doctor can then see a picture of your neck and lymph nodes.


One of the most common and important tests for diagnosing cancer is for your doctor to take a biopsy – a sample of cells from the area of concern. The sample can then be examined under a microscope and cancer cells may be detected.

The more common forms of biopsy are below. Occasionally doctors may opt to carry out a biopsy under general anaesthetic in order to obtain larger tissue samples or take tissue from any other areas of concern. This can usually be done as day surgery, with most patients able to go home the same day. 


A sample will be taken while you are under local anaesthetic. The doctor handling your incision biopsy will use a scalpel to take a thin slice of tissue from the area of concern. The tissue sample will then be tested. Depending on the size of the sample taken, you may be given stitches to help the area heal properly. 

If the tissue is taken from inside your mouth or throat, your doctors may recommend that you avoid hot food and drinks while the tissue heals (usually just a few days). Bruising and soreness are common and no cause for concern.


This test is used more commonly for patients with suspicious neck lumps, but may also be used to take samples from other areas. A fine needle is used to take a sample of cells from the area of concern, while an ultrasound may be used to help the doctor guide the needle more accurately. This can be a little uncomfortable, but can be done as an outpatient appointment.

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